Originally from South Africa . Qualified as a pharmacist, and then graduated at Wits
Medical School as a medical doctor. After spending 7 years in general practice,specialised
in anaesthetics and remained in private anaesthetic practice for the next 30 years. During the War of
Attrition in 1969 worked as a volunteer anaesthetist at the Tel Hashomer hospital and a few years later,
1974, at the Rambam Hospital, Haifa for a shorter period
Following Aliya in 1988 worked part time at the Assuta Hospital, Tel Aviv for a few years.